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Fisheries & Maritime transport

The significant increase in freight volume as a result of economic development, technical innovation, and globalization in the middle of the 20th century has made maritime transport a major sector of the Blue Economy. In the meantime, fishing activity has also greatly expanded, with the global fishing fleet doubling between 1950 and 2015 [1]. The rapid expansion of these two sectors raises the question of their compatibility as they operate within a shared maritime space and can therefore interact with each other in several ways. Most of the challenging interactions identified relate to the potential impact of maritime transport on marine ecosystems, the health of which are of prime importance to fishermen’s’ activity. Both sectors must therefore work hand in hand to ensure that the needs of each party are met.

This fiche sets out the different interactions to be considered between the fishing sector and the maritime transport sector, by detailing how both activities can interact with each other, and what possible synergistic relationships can be fostered between the two sectors.

Related challenges

Conflicts between the fisheries sector and maritime transport sector are due to the various direct and indirect impacts of maritime shipping on marine habitats and life. Impacts include, inter alia, disturbance, noise, vessel collisions with marine animals, chemical pollution (e.g., through fuel combustion, through the discharge of hazardous waste waters, through the release of biocides used as antifouling paints, etc.), and the introduction of invasive species, which mostly happens through ballast water [6] [7] [8]. Environmental impacts of shipping can be labelled as episodic or routine and can be vessel-based or port-based [9] (see Table 1). Shipping pressures are dispersed in the marine environment, but they tend to be higher and more severe in inshore waters and in the proximity of ports due to the low water exchange rate and the presence of complex ecosystems in these areas.

Tabla

Descripción generada automáticamente

Table 1. Main types of shipping pollution divided between episodic, routine vessel-based, and port-based.

Related enablers


References

[1] https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.1820344116

[2]https://www.eea.europa.eu/highlights/eu-maritime-transport-first-environmental

[5]https://oceans-and-fisheries.ec.europa.eu/policy/common-fisheries-policy-cfp/action-plan-protecting-and-restoring-marine-ecosystems-sustainable-and-resilient-fisheries_en

[6]Abdulla, A. & Linden, O. (2008). Maritime Traffic Effects on Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea, (Volume 1, Review) Of Impacts, Priority Areas and Mitigation Measures. IUCN Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation, Malaga, Spain (2008), 168pp.ISBN:978–2-8317–1079–2.

[7]Anderson, K., Baldi, F., Brynolf, S., Lindgren, J. F., Granhag, L., and Svensson, E. (2016) Shipping and the Environment. In: Andersson, K., Brynolf, S., Lindgren, J. F. & Wilewska-Bien, M. Shipping and the Environment: Improving Environmental Performance in Marine Transportation. Springer: Berlin

[8]Coomber, F.G., D’Incà, M., Rosso, M., Tepsich, P., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., and Moulins, A. (2016) Description of the vessel traffic within the north Pelagos Sanctuary: inputs for marine spatial planning and management implications within an existing international Marine Protected Area. Marine Policy 69, pp.102-113

[9] OECD (2008) The impacts of globalization on international maritime transport activity: Past trends and future perspectives. Online at: http://www.oecd.org/greengrowth/greeningtransport/41380820.pdf

[10]Slabbekoorn, H., et al., (2010). A noisy spring: the impact of globally rising underwater sound levels on fish. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25 (2010) 419–427. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2010.04.005

[11] Weilgart, L. (2018). The impact of ocean noise pollution on fish and invertebrates. Oceancare & Dalhousie University. 36pp. https://www.oceancare.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/Underwater-Noise-Pollution_Impact-on-fish-and-invertebrates_Report_OceanCare_EN_36p_2018.pdf

[12]Slabbekoorn, H., et al., (2010). A noisy spring: the impact of globally rising underwater sound levels on fish. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25 (2010) 419–427. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2010.04.005

[13]ITOPF (2011). Effects of oil pollution on fisheries and mariculture. 12 pp. Available at https://www.itopf.org/fileadmin/uploads/itopf/data/Documents/TIPS_TAPS_new/TIP_11_Effects_of_Oil_Pollution_on_Fisheries_and_Mariculture.pdf

[14]See CIAIM-05/206 Report about the Collision between Merchant Ship BALTIC BREEZE and Fishing Vessel MAR DE MARIN in the Ria de Vigo (Pontevedra, Spain) on 1 April 2014. Available at https://www.mitma.gob.es/recursos_mfom/ic_05_2016_balticb_mmarin_english_web.pdf

[15]Katsanevakis S., Rilov G. and Edelist D. (2018). Impacts of marine invasive alien species on European fisheries and aquaculture - plague or boon?. 125- 132 In CIESM Monograph SO [F Briand Ed.] Engaging marine scientists and fishers to share knowledge and perceptions- Early lessons. CIESM Publisher, Monaco and Paris, 218 p. Avilable at https://ciesm.org/online/monographs/50/CIESM_Monograph_50_Scientists_And_Fishers_125_132.pdf

[16]FAO (2021). 4th FAO/ILO/IMO Joint Working Group meeting on IUU Fishing and other related matters. Available at https://www.imo.org/es/MediaCentre/MeetingSummaries/Paginas/IUU-JWG-4.aspx

[17] Weilgart, L. (2018). The impact of ocean noise pollution on fish and invertebrates. Oceancare & Dalhousie University. 36pp. https://www.oceancare.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/Underwater-Noise-Pollution_Impact-on-fish-and-invertebrates_Report_OceanCare_EN_36p_2018.pdf

[18] Weilgart, L. (2018). The impact of ocean noise pollution on fish and invertebrates. Oceancare & Dalhousie University. 36pp. https://www.oceancare.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/Underwater-Noise-Pollution_Impact-on-fish-and-invertebrates_Report_OceanCare_EN_36p_2018.pdf

[19] Weilgart, L. (2018). The impact of ocean noise pollution on fish and invertebrates. Oceancare & Dalhousie University. 36pp. https://www.oceancare.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/Underwater-Noise-Pollution_Impact-on-fish-and-invertebrates_Report_OceanCare_EN_36p_2018.pdf

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