Marine Protected Areas (MPA)

Marine Protected Areas - Science, Policy and Management

Rarely is the strong link that exists between Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) explicitly recognised.

WWF - World Wide Fund for Nature

Marine and coastal ecosystems provide a variety of benefits, from food and climate regulation, to the crystal-clear waters and marine landscapes that are the basis for tourism and leisure activities.


This study aims to provide an overview of the current state and potential marine protected areas within the area investigated in the SIMNORAT and SIMWESTMED projects, and their legal corresponding legal basis at a national and international legisl

Science of the Total Environment 639 (1088-1098)

The authors developed and tested an approach to identifying priority areas for conservation that are less impacted by human activities than other areas.

Marine Scotland

This report provides an assessment of emerging evidence on the socio-economic impacts of Scotland’s Marine Protected Areas (MPAs).