Integrative and spatialized tools for studying the effects of a wide variety of ecosystem drivers are needed to implement ecosystem-based management and marine spatial planning.
Ecosystem based management
ICES Journal of Marine Science
Marine Policy, vol. 108
Although stakeholder participation is transversal to other steps of the Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) process, its recognition and adoption is context dependent.
For more than a decade, marine spatial planning has been used around the world to advance objectives for conservation, economic development, and ecosystem-based management.